Immunosorbent: ELISA (in vitro)
ELISA, an immunosorbent assay, for in vitro oncology studies utilizes a plate-based assay to screen for specific biomarkers. This is useful for detecting and quantifying cell proliferation.
Tissue can be homogenized, extracted via high-speed spin or protein precipitation, then the biomarkers analyzed by ELISA. Thymidine kinase (TK) 210 ELISA has been used to analyze TK1 protein and TK1 activity levels by the 3[H]-deoxythymidine (dThd) phosphorylation assay to show both active and inactive TK1 levels in sera from cancer patients.
Detecting lower levels of inactive TK1 levels in sera from leukemia patients, for example, is advantageous for in vitro diagnostics. Employing ELISA assays with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) MGR2 and MGR3 for HER2 extracellular domain (ECD) quantification is a potential method for monitoring HER2 ECD levels in a clinical setting, as the mAbs do not compete for the same epitopes as some anticancer therapies e.g. trastuzumab.