Oncology vaccine efficacy
Oncology vaccine efficacy can be explored using primary endpoints such as complete/overall response and adverse events. Secondary endpoints may include immune response, disease-free survival and overall survival. Risk of bias review can include random effects meta-analysis, if necessary. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) framework can systematically review the evidence.
Further developments to immune responses and vaccine technologies continue, such as researching specific T-cell numbers that are needed for efficacy, depending on T-cell receptor affinity, the antigen and tumor type. Tolerability of oncology vaccines is generally acceptable, although often lack potency; as potency increases, assessing normal cell toxicity will be crucial. Efficacy is enhanced when vaccines are combined with checkpoint inhibitors and immunostimulators. Also, revising multi-antigen vaccines and personalized vaccines with patient-specific neoantigens provides key strategies to advance oncology vaccine efficacy.